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How to Become a Pharmacy Tech

Learn the steps needed to begin a career as a pharmacy technician, from choosing the best program to licensure. Explore the possibilities a career as a pharmacy technician can offer today.

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Two scientists, a young man and an older woman, wearing lab coats and eyeglasses, engaged in research work in a laboratory, examining samples with a microscope.

Have you been described by people who know you as detail-oriented, compassionate, trustworthy, and responsible? Your personality, skills, and genuine care for others, combined with the right training, could make you an outstanding pharmacy tech. As a pharmacy tech, you’ll use these great traits to safeguard people’s health and well-being while contributing positively to their lives.

Pharmacy techs work under the supervision of licensed pharmacists to dispense medication, provide information to patients, and perform administrative duties. To do their job correctly, technicians need to have the proper education and may need to be licensed by their state. There are hundreds of pharmacy tech programs available from schools across the country, including short-term certificates, career diplomas, and associate degrees. But which path makes the most sense for you? Keep reading for a step-by-step guide that reviews everything you need to know about becoming a pharmacy technician, from program prerequisites to professional certification.

Why Become a Pharmacy Technician?

Pharmacy technicians are expected to see faster-than-average growth in the coming years, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). Many pharmacy tech programs can have students ready to fill those jobs in a year or less. However, before you enroll, make sure the career is right for you. Ask yourself the following questions:

  • Do you possess strong communication skills? Pharmacy techs communicate regularly with both pharmacists and customers. Technicians must be able to convey information clearly and correctly.
  • Are you genuinely interested in the medical field? As with other health care occupations, pharmacy techs must have a heart for helping others.
  • Do you understand fundamental math concepts? Math is used regularly in pharmacies to calculate dosing, dispense medication and order inventory.
  • Are you detail-oriented? To meet state and insurance company requirements, pharmacy technicians must be exact in their work and recordkeeping.
  • Are you comfortable working with controlled medications? Medications dispensed by pharmacies can be subject to strict government regulations, and penalties may be assessed if drugs are not dispensed or recorded properly.

If you answered “yes” to these questions, a career as a pharmacy technician may be right for you.

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Pharmacy Tech Training: Explore Your Options

Once you’ve determined that being a pharmacy tech is right for you, it’s time to get the proper training. You can study on-campus or attend an online pharmacy technician school, and either option could result in a certificate, career diploma, or associate degree. Some programs are designed with working adults in mind while others may be appropriate for those who eventually want to pursue a higher education.

Regardless of which program you select, make sure it is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education. Proper accreditation not only indicates the quality of the program, but graduating from an accredited program may be necessary for some state licensure or professional certifications.

Which School Type Fits Your Needs

A few accredited pharmacy tech programs are offered by hospitals or health systems, but most students will attend either a vocational school or a community college. Either option will provide the foundation of skills needed for this career. However, each school type has its own distinct advantages.

  • Vocational schools: The majority of accredited pharmacy tech programs are offered by vocational schools or technical colleges. These schools specialize in providing workforce training, and they typically offer certificates or diplomas that can be earned in a year or less. They are a good choice for students who only want to study pharmacy tech and aren’t interested in taking general education classes as well. The downside to a vocational education is that credits may not always transfer toward a degree if you wish to go back to school later.
  • Community colleges: Community colleges not only provide short-term certificate programs but may also offer associate degrees for pharmacy technicians. These degrees could encompass general education courses and might take up to two years to finish. For students considering a future bachelor’s degree or a career as a pharmacist, community colleges could be an ideal choice. Many of these institutions have established articulation agreements that simplify the credit transfer process. This means they have made agreements with each other to accept students transferring among the schools in the agreement. For residents within the college’s district, community colleges can be a more affordable option compared to vocational schools.

The Online Training Option

Accredited pharmacy tech programs are offered both on-campus and online. Both formats provide the same core information and typically offer the chance for externships or other hands-on training. Which one you choose will depend largely on your current work schedule, learning preferences and class availability.

  • Campus programs: Traditional programs are ideal for those who learn best in a group setting and by having face-to-face access to instructors. A campus-based program is best for those who have consistent schedules that will allow them to attend classes at set times. Since all courses and clinical requirements are completed in person, students should ensure the school location is convenient. Programs offered on campus may range from certificates that can be earned in six months to associate degrees that can take two years to complete. Although some schools offer night and weekend classes, parents may have to arrange for childcare if they attend class during the day.
  • Mostly online programs: For students who want more flexibility, a mostly online program allows study times to be scheduled around other obligations. Working adults can review lessons at times that are convenient for them. What’s more, since all course materials are online, students can study at home, the library or even on their work breaks. Online pharmacy tech schools often arrange for students to complete externships at local pharmacies where they can gain hands-on experience. A career diploma from these programs may be completed in as few as four months. Since online learners study independently, these programs are best for those who are motivated and self-disciplined.
  • Partially online (hybrid) programs: Some schools combine online and on-campus learning. These hybrid programs may allow students to take the majority of their coursework online while completing clinical requirements on campus. A hybrid certificate may take longer to earn than one that is mostly online, but many programs can still be completed in less than two years. You may want to consider one of these blended programs if you need a flexible study schedule but still want to meet with instructors face-to-face on occasion. These can also be a good option for those who want to gain hands-on experience on campus before being placed into a work setting.

Understanding Degrees by Level

Regardless of whether you study online or on-campus, you will likely earn one of the following:

  • Certificate/Diploma: Although going by different names, a certificate and a diploma offer a comparable level of education. A certificate/diploma in pharmacy tech is a focused, 4-12 month educational program that equips students with the essential skills and knowledge to become pharmacy technicians. This program covers topics like medication dispensing, pharmacy operations, and pharmaceutical calculations, preparing graduates for entry-level positions in retail or hospital pharmacies. A certificate or diploma is best for those who want to become pharmacy technicians quickly and don’t expect to pursue further education in the near future.
  • Associate degree: An associate degree typically has a curriculum that combines general education requirements with pharmacy tech classes. It’s a two-year academic program that delves into the principles of pharmacy practices, drug management, and pharmaceutical math. By completing this degree, students acquire a well-rounded education and hands-on experience, enabling them to excel as pharmacy technicians in diverse healthcare environments. Some employers, such as institutional pharmacies, may prefer to hire technicians with a higher level of education. Credits from an associate degree may transfer to four-year schools and be applied toward a bachelor’s degree.

Finish Your Prereqs

Many pharmacy technician schools admit students so long as they are 18 years old and have a high school diploma or GED. However, there may be prerequisites before you can begin the pharmacy tech classes. Here are some prerequisites students should keep in mind:

Academic prerequisites

Some schools require pharmacy tech students to take introductory math and English classes prior to being admitted to the program. In some cases, students may be able to test out of these requirements.


Students may be required to maintain a specific grade point average to remain in good standing. This can vary by institution, but a 2.0 or C average is typical.

Healthcare experience

More advanced learning tracks may be reserved for those who already have experience in healthcare. For instance, institutional pharmacy tech programs, which prepare students to work with more complex medicines in hospitals, may only be open to existing technicians.

Other prerequisites

To work at some clinical sites, students may be required to pass a background check. They may also need to pass a drug screening, be tested for TB, and be fully immunized.

Apply to Pharmacy Technician Programs

Ready to start applying to pharmacy tech programs? Many vocational schools and community colleges offer straightforward application forms, often allowing you to complete the entire enrollment process online. But remember, not all schools have identical procedures. Application fees and deadlines can vary significantly between programs. To help you navigate this process, here are some essential factors to consider:

Application fees: At many schools, the application process can be completed online in less than 30 minutes. You’ll need to provide demographic information, past education and, for community colleges, details to substantiate your residency. When you submit your application, you may be required to pay a fee which is usually not more than $50.

Deadline requirements: It’s crucial to know your selected school’s registration deadlines. Pharmacy technician programs, particularly those offered on campus, may only start at certain times of the year. If you miss the deadline, it could be months before you can start taking classes. Fortunately, some online pharmacy tech degrees have rolling deadlines which allow you to apply and begin classes at any time.

Program tuition: Tuition rates will vary significantly by institution. Some online certificate programs offered by vocational schools cost less than $1,000. Discounts may also be offered to those who can pay the entire amount upfront. Meanwhile, community colleges had average annual tuition and fees of $3,860 in 2022-2023, according to the College Board.

Scholarships & Grants: If you need help paying for college tuition, there are several scholarship and grant opportunities for pharmacy tech students. If the school you plan to attend participates in the federal student aid program, complete the Free Application for Federal Student Aid, or FAFSA, to see if you qualify for a Pell Grant. Many schools also have their own financial aid programs, and there are private scholarships available from organizations such as the American Association of Pharmacy Technicians.

Financial aid: Scholarships and grants are an ideal way to pay for college since these funds do not need to be repaid. However, they aren’t the only option available to students. Low-interest loans and work-study arrangements can also offset the cost of a degree program. To learn more, read our complete guide to financial aid.

Finish Your Pharmacy Tech Classes

Many pharmacy technician programs are structured in such a way that each class builds on previous courses. As a result, students start with foundational classes and then move into clinical practice before being assigned an externship.

Initial classes provide an introduction to pharmacy and pharmacology. These courses cover the following topics, among others:

  • History of pharmacy
  • Laws and ethics
  • Anatomy and physiology
  • Pharmacologic classes
  • Terminology
  • Pharmaceutical calculations

After the introductory courses are completed, students will begin clinical work. In campus programs, these clinical requirements may occur in a laboratory simulation while mostly online programs may assign students to a partnering pharmacy to gain hands-on experience.

Clinical work is intended to provide real-world practice in the following areas:

  • Retail pharmacies
  • Inventory management
  • Compounding
  • Health-system pharmacies
  • Concentrations and dilutions

While engaging in clinical work, students may also enroll in advanced pharmacology classes that expand their initial learning and prepare them for more complex clinical tasks. Typically, at the end of the program, students participate in an externship, gaining supervised experience as a pharmacy tech. Graduates from accredited programs are expected to possess the required skills and knowledge to pursue professional certification in their field.

Earn Pharmacy Tech Certification

Before starting your pharmacy technician career, it is essential to fulfill any state licensing prerequisites. Also, obtaining a professional certification could enhance your job opportunities. The licensing and certification processes may require passing a test and adhering to ongoing educational mandates.

Pass the Exam

Not all states have licensure requirements for pharmacy technicians. The specific regulations and requirements vary from state to state. It is important to research and understand the rules and guidelines in your state before pursuing a career as a pharmacy technician. Even if licensure isn’t required in your area, it may be smart to become certified. The Bureau of Labor Statistics notes that some employers only hire certified workers, so certification may make it easier to get a job.

Two organizations offer certification programs for pharmacy technicians: the Pharmacy Technician Certification Board (PTCB) and the National Healthcareer Association (NHA). Both require applicants to pass a certification exam. Here are the details on each one as well as more about state regulations for pharmacy technicians.

  • PTCB certification: The PTCB offers CPhT certification, which it says is the gold standard of credentialing for pharmacy technicians. Students must have a high school diploma or GED and pass the Pharmacy Technician Certification Exam (PTCE) to be credentialed. The exam is a two-hour, computer-based test with 90 multiple choice questions.
  • NHA certification: Pharmacy technicians can also become CPhT certified by the NHA. To earn this credential, applicants must complete a pharmacy tech training program or have one year of work experience. They must also pass the Exam for the Certification of Pharmacy Technicians (ExCPT). The exam takes two hours and ten minutes to complete and includes 100 test questions and 20 pretest questions.
  • State regulations: Each state regulates pharmacy technicians differently. Their requirements may include completing a pharmacy tech program, passing an exam and paying a fee. Check with your state’s licensing board to learn what’s required in your area. There are links to all U.S. and Canadian boards on the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy website.

Quick Exam Prep Resources

Both the PTCE and ExCPT test for the knowledge needed to work effectively as a pharmacy technician. The PTCE covers nine topic areas. Here they are along with the percentage of questions they represent on the exam:

  • Pharmacology for Technicians: 13.75%
  • Pharmacy Law and Regulations: 12.5%
  • Sterile and Non-Sterile Compounding: 8.75%
  • Medication Safety: 12.5%
  • Pharmacy Quality Assurance: 7.5%
  • Medication Order Entry and Fill Process: 17.5%
  • Pharmacy Inventory Management: 8.75%
  • Pharmacy Billing and Reimbursement: 8.75%
  • Pharmacy Information System Usage and Application: 10%

Meanwhile, the ExCPT covers four domains, with each having the following number of questions:

  • Overview and Laws: 25 questions
  • Drugs and Drug Therapy: 15 questions
  • Dispensing Process and Medication Safety: 45 questions
  • Quality Assurance: 15 questions

While anyone with a high school diploma or GED can sit for the PTCE, only those with experience or formal education are eligible for the ExCPT. Regardless of which exam you take, you’ll want to be properly prepared.

  • Consider a PTCE or ExCPT review course: While independent review guides can be helpful, don’t overlook the practice guides and tests offered by the NHA and PTCB. The PTCB offers two practice exams. The price for one exam is $29 or you can buy both for $49. The organization also offers a free practice app in partnership with PocketPrep. The app can be upgraded to provide unlimited access to 800 practice questions for a one-time payment of $24.99. The NHA study materials for the ExCPT include $15 flashcards, a $74 online study guide, a practice test and a $199 bundle that includes online workbooks, practice assessments and more.

Keep Your Pharm Tech Certs Current

To keep your CPhT designation, recertification is required every two years. Here’s a look at how each organization handles the recertification process.

PTCB recertification: A pharmacy technician must complete 20 hours of continuing education during each two-year recertification cycle. This must include one hour in pharmacy law and one hour in patient safety. A maximum of 10 hours can be earned by completing a college course with at least a C grade. Applications can be submitted online 60 days prior to the credential’s expiration, and there is a $49 fee.

NHA recertification: NHA also requires 20 hours of continuing education to recertify as a CPhT. Of that time, at least one hour must be in pharmacy law and one hour must be in patient safety. The recertification fee is $55.

Ready that Resume

Having a polished resume can help you stand out from other job applicants. Employers are often looking for workers who can begin immediately with little to no training. That’s why it’s important to emphasize three areas on your resume:

  • Education
  • Certifications
  • Professional Experience

Make sure to list your school’s accreditation, professional certifications and whether you are registered or licensed in your state. If you don’t yet have professional experience, list any externships or internships you have completed.

Here are four resources with examples and tips to help you create your resume.

Interview, Interview, Interview

The job interview is the final hurdle to clear before launching your career as a pharmacy technician. This is your chance to highlight what would make you an excellent addition to any pharmacy’s staff.

To do that, you need to prepare responses to common interview questions. Your interview will likely include general questions about your strengths and weaknesses but also inquiries specific to the work of pharmacy techs. Here are seven job-specific questions you may face and how to answer when trying to land a role as a pharmacy technician.

1. Why did you decide to become a pharmacy technician?

Everyone’s answer to this question will be different, but employers are undoubtedly hoping to hear you say you entered the profession for reasons other than money. Describe what attracted you to the work and perhaps touch on your favorite part of your training program.

2. How would you handle a demanding or aggressive customer?

Unhappy customers are a reality in every retail situation. The job interviewer is listening for you to respond with specific strategies for diffusing the situation and seeking assistance if needed.

3. Do you have experience with online prescription systems?

If you don’t have specific experience to share, a good response is to discuss any training or courses you took that demonstrate your familiarity with computer technology.

4. Can you walk me through the process of filling a prescription?

This straightforward question is to ensure you understand the steps involved in properly dispensing medication.

5. What do you do if you notice a discrepancy with a prescription?

Here, the job interviewer is checking to see if you understand patient safety precautions and what do should you come across a problem, such as an apparently mislabeled prescription.

6. How would you handle a conflict with a co-worker?

Employers are looking for team players and want to know how you’ll respond should you have a concern with someone else on the staff. Prepare to answer with specific strategies rather than a vague “I’d try to work it out.”

7. Can you see yourself working as a pharmacy technician in ten years?

Be honest with your answer but also remember an interviewer doesn’t want to hire someone only to have that person leave a year later.